Open Chain Link Styles
Belcher & Rolo
Belchers are chains that are made from uniform round or oval links made from low dome or flat stock wire. Rollo (Rolo sometimes) chains are made from half-round wire. The resulting chain is heavier than cable and looks like it has been assembled from strips of metal instead of wires.
A typical box jewelry chain is made up of folded-over flat, square links. They interlink tightly, resembling a smooth, square box.
- Half Round – the half-round box chain has slightly rounded links.
- Round – this box chain has links that are round.
Cable jewelry chains consist of uniform round or oval links of wire that are connected to form a chain. Cables are the most simple and commonly used jewelry chain. Cables are frequently altered by flattening the links, texturing the metal surface, or drawing/elongating the links. Double cables use two links side by side for each chain link position. Flat cable chains have the links hammered flat instead of being round wire.
- Figure-8 – This starts out as a cable chain, but then the alternating links are twisted or “curbed” into a figure-8 or infinity shape.
- Double Link – Cables with separate double links in each position instead of a single round wire link.
Curb chains are oval cables where each chain link has been twisted or “curbed” so the entire chain length lies flat against the body. Look for variations of the curb chain, such as twisted and marquise styles too.
- Parallel – A common variation of the curb jewelry chain is the parallel curb, where two links side by side are used in each link position.
Fancy Wire Link Styles
Many fancy variations are possible by machining differently shaped link components. These styles are called “fancy” or “fantasy” variations of cables. These chains may use heart, infinity, flower, or other shaped machine-made links instead of rounds or ovals.
- Fancy Sheet Link Styles – These chains are hand or machine-made by assembling stamped sheet links in shapes such as flowers, petals, or geometrics. These stampings may have additional variation effects, such as textures or curbing.
The foxtail type of chain is made with a woven v-shaped pattern of wire. You can make loose foxtail chains or tightly woven ones, as shown above. This chain looks similar to the Spiga or wheat chain, but the construction is different.
(a.k.a. Popcorn Chain) – this is a bendable, fairly dainty jewelry chain made up of lightweight, hollow, interconnected links that are machine-made and assembled.
Ladder chains are machine-made by assembling wire links in a hook-and-eye configuration instead of standard interlinking.
Link & Connector
A pattern of alternating round or oval wire links connected by straps of a flat, wide strip. Link & connector styles are usually larger fashion chains.
Long and Short
As the name suggests, this is a broad category of chain styles consisting of links of differing lengths to create an appealing design. Long & short styles are usually short, repeating patterns of links with a fairly uniform width but differing lengths.
- Figaro – A popular variation of the long & short, figaros are patterns of three short links followed by one long link nearly equal to the length of the three short lengths. Figaros are usually made from thicker gauge wire than many other chains, so they are heavier-weight styles. The links are curbed.
The sparkly, constantly changing look on a margarita chain is created by using a diamond cut, twisted curb, or cable chain.
This jewelry chain type was popularized by the Gucci brand and is often referred to as a Gucci chain. However, the name use is restricted due to trademark laws, so jewelers are advised to call the chain marine or anchor chain instead. Marine chain is manufactured using a round wire that then goes through complex, multi-step machining to create large oval links, cut bar segments, insert, and then solder the bars in the center of each large oval link. Finally, the chain is flattened or hammered.
Rombo link styles are “fancy” or “fantasy” variations of cables. These chains typically use diamond or “rombo” shaped, machine-made links instead of rounds or ovals.
This type of chain is a braided rope assembly of open-wire links, so named because the braiding is similar to that used to create fiber ropes or twine.
- French Rope – a variation on the rope chain that creates a spiraling effect in the finished braid. This chain is not made in France. Rumor has it that the tool & die maker who invented the braid had the last name, French. Not sure if that is just industry lore or the actual truth.
- Spiga or Wheat – another common variation of the rope style, wheat (or spiga in Italian) jewelry chains exhibit a wheat-like v-pattern of links when viewed from the side. Wheat links are typically thicker than the fine links used in standard ropes or French ropes.
- Singapore – A twisted, lightweight rope chain variation.
Saturn or Satellite
Also known as the Rosary Chain. A Saturn chain is made using standard links with equally spaced accent beads along the chain. The accent beads and links can vary, so there is a variety of these chain styles available.
Solid Chain Styles
Ball or Bead
A ball-in-socket assembly of spherical metal beads and wire connectors that, when joined, create a flexible length of bead chain. Sometimes called a dog tag chain because this type of neck chain is commonly used for military dog tag identification necklaces.
As the name suggests, bar chains are made from bar-shaped links connected by small oval jump ring connectors. Bars can be straight, curved, or even shaped like chevrons, marquise… etc.
- Scalloped – Resembling a scallop, these links are curved and separated by smaller chain links.
A flat chain made from a double cable that has been “swaged” or drawn through a flat condensing die. The resulting chain is smooth and solid in appearance with a mirror surface. Herringbones are not flexible and can easily kink.
this flexible chain is woven tightly together using very fine wire.
A stiff, solid chain made from a metal sheet strip spiraled around a box chain core, omegas are known to hold their collar shape. Omegas are solid and shiny in appearance, with no open links. Omegas can kink if not properly handled.
This jewelry chain style is made up of larger round or elongated blanks separated by smaller connecting links.
A type of tubular chain made from assembled curved plates. Snake chains are highly flexible and have a solid appearance instead of open links.
Chain Link Variations
Most open link chain styles can be altered with one or more of the following techniques to make pleasing design changes.
Dapping can either curve a metal link or leave a single hammer strike mark that reflects light. Both effects can be used for design purposes.
Chain links can be diamond cut in various patterns with precision tools. Diamond cuts create angled facets with precise edges. This alteration creates the shiniest, light-catching facets possible on a metal surface.
Round or oval machine links can be stretched or “drawn” to elongate the chain. Drawing a chain can change its overall appearance and also make it narrower. This style is often popularized as a paperclip chain.
This process hammers the chain to catch the light rather than using diamond cuts.
Wire links can be flatted to create more surface area to reflect light. Flat chain links appear to be more bright and shiny.
Hammering the surface of the links creates a multi-faceted reflective surface texture.
Knurled or Textured
Knurling is a common texturing that gives links a hatch mark surface texture that brings down reflectiveness and also forms an excellent foundation for oxidizing in relief. Many other surface textures can be applied, ranging from simple line textures to more complicated pattern imprints.
The metal is oxidized or antiqued to darken its appearance. Another example of an oxidized chain is shown above, which serves to enhance the visibility of the knurled surface relief.
Swedged or Swaged
A swage chain has been drawn through a die to decrease the diameter and condense the links of the chain. Swaging can significantly alter the chain style. For example, herringbone and serpentine chains start out as double cable or curb chains that are re-shaped through swaging.
Twisted or Curbed
Soldered vs. Unsoldered Chain Styles
It is important to note that most precious metal chain links are soldered together.
- Soldering closes the links so that gaps cannot form and cause chain breakage. Some other metals, such as copper, cannot be easily soldered.
- Unsoldered chains made from these metals should be used with care. Ensure links are substantial enough to handle typical wear and pendant weight without stretching.
Many cables and curbs produced domestically use a numbering system that gives a rough indication of chain size. The first two digits refer to the thickness of the chain wire in thousandths of an inch. The second two digits indicate the number of links in the chain per inch.
At Halstead, we prefix our chain with a metals code: 1 for base metals, 2 for sterling, 3 for gold filled, and 4 for copper. So, a 21018 chain would be a sterling chain using a .010″ (30 gauge) wire with 18 links per inch. This numbering system is only used with some chain styles. Note: Please remember that machine chain production can alter the gauge and link count due to normal drawing during manufacturing. So, these numbers should just be considered rough indicators.